The condition of absence of spermatozoa in the semen; failure of spermatogenesis, is called Azoospermia and is separated into Obstructive azoospermia and Non-obstructive azoospermia.
Obstructive Azoospermia is the condition where spermatozoa are produced normally in the testicles, but the passage to the urethra is obstructed for various reasons. The causes can be congenital (i.e. Aplasia of Vas Deferens) or acquired (i.e. Inflammation, Vasectomy).
The surgical treatment aims to restore the permeability of the sperm by creating a detour (by-pass) around the obstruction. By applying microsurgical techniques the successful results are significantly increased, compared to common macroscopic procedures.
The results of the operation can be visible in just a few months, with 40-80% success of recorded spermatozoa in the spermiogram. Nevertheless during the operation, testicular tissue is obtained, in order to be stored and used in a possible future IVF procedure.